In 1983, Richard Stallman, one of the original authors of the popular Emacs program and a longtime member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, announced the GNU project, the purpose of which was to produce a completely non-proprietary Unix-compatible operating system, saying that he had become frustrated with the shift in climate surrounding the computer world and its users. In his initial declaration of the project and its purpose, he specifically cited as a motivation his opposition to being asked to agree to non-disclosure agreements and restrictive licenses which prohibited the free sharing of potentially profitable in-development software, a prohibition directly contrary to the traditional hacker ethic. Software development for the GNU operating system began in January 1984, and the Free Software Foundation (FSF) was founded in October 1985. He developed a free software definition and the concept of "copyleft", designed to ensure software freedom for all. Some non-software industries are beginning to use techniques similar to those used in free software development for their research and development process; scientists, for example, are looking towards more open development processes, and hardware such as microchips are beginning to be developed with specifications released under copyleft licenses (see the OpenCores project, for instance). Creative Commons and the free culture movement have also been largely influenced by the free software movement.
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Our favorite messaging service takes security seriously—it's Snowden-approved!—using its own open-source protocol to do end-to-end encryption, even on voice calls. It's not as much fun as some of the others, but still supports sending photos and video, plus group messaging. On Android, Signal can completely replace the SMS texting app; on iPhone you need to get other users to download Signal or you can't talk to them.
Evernote has one use: be your online repository for everything. Scan it, shoot it, type it, whatever, just put it in Evernote to find later. Most text, even in pictures, is OCRed (optical character recognition) so it's searchable later. Organize the notes into Notebooks, then access it anywhere. Despite some ups and downs in its business model, it remains our Editors' Choice for note-taking on multiple platforms—even if for free you can only use two devices (plus the Web interface). 

PCMag's top pick for software to take control of other computers is TeamViewer. Almost everything you need is free: desktop sharing, file transfers, even chat with remote users. And the setup couldn't be easier. Take control of a PC over a Web connection and a Chrome browser (even in ChromeOS) with the TeamViewer extension. There is also a Windows app in the Microsoft Store and optional downloads to make installing TeamViewer on multiple PCs even easier—though it's only free for personal use.
Described as a "messaging app / former Emperor of Austria," you can tell from the Web page that Franz is gonna be fun—and useful. The sheer number of services it supports is huge: Slack, Facebook, WhatsApp, Skype, Google Hangouts, Twitter, Gmail, Outlook.com, and HipChat are just the start. You can add a service multiple times if you have multiple accounts.
Microsoft is no longer supporting this software, but it still works if you download it from a third-party site. If you've got basic video-editing needs on the desktop, and want a fun way to man-handle all the clips into a final form, then you're set. (If you fear outdated software, try Microsoft's Movie Moments, for 60-second productions. Or wait for the long-promised Windows 10 version of Movie Maker, but who knows when that's coming.)
Most free software licenses are based on copyright, and there are limits on what kinds of requirements can be imposed through copyright. If a copyright-based license respects freedom in the ways described above, it is unlikely to have some other sort of problem that we never anticipated (though this does happen occasionally). However, some free software licenses are based on contracts, and contracts can impose a much larger range of possible restrictions. That means there are many possible ways such a license could be unacceptably restrictive and nonfree.
If you use a desktop email client like Outlook, Thunderbird, or even Windows Mail, you're probably not getting as much spam-fighting power—especially with POP3 email accounts. Stick SPAMfigher on the system—it works directly with Microsoft to make it as tough against spam as possible. (The Windows version is totally free for home use; the Mac version is only free for 10 days.)
Content marketing seemed like a viable option only a few years ago to help businesses grow their databases. However, research shows that engagement is getting harder to keep and that a small minority of content online is responsible for the majority of social media shares. If a marketer wants to make content marketing work for their business, they need to produce exceptional content. 
Guest blog on other sites that have a big audience to broaden your brand reach even further. You can usually get a byline and link back to your site. All you have to do is search Google for guest post opportunities. Use “[niche keyword]+ write for us” or “[niche keyword]+ contributor guidelines” for starters. Just make sure the site you pitch to has an audience that will be interested in your business.

There are gaps in the version numbers shown above because there are other changes in this page that do not affect the definition or its interpretations. For instance, the list does not include changes in asides, formatting, spelling, punctuation, or other parts of the page. You can review the complete list of changes to the page through the cvsweb interface.

Ubuntu updates yearly, once majorly and once with just fixes. But each iteration brings new tools and developments. Last year the Linux distro even made the leap to tablets; that after trying to power smartphones in 2015. The latest version for desktops and laptops comes with a full suite of software (including LibreOffice), access to thousands more (and many free—just look for the penguin icon throughout this story). It's the Linux of choice here at PCMag, for it's one that is easy to master by just about any user.

No matter if you work online or in the real world, networking can help your business succeed. It might not feel valuable to just keep making new contacts, but you never know how they might help you later down the road. Take the time to meet, greet and get to know people in-person and online. Make sure they understand what your business is all about. They might not become customers, but they can help connect you with free leads later on.


Commenting on Websites: Sites like Huffington Post, Entrepreneur and Forbes all rely on social media sign-ins. This means when you comment on these sites; you are logged into another site and posting as that profile. You can find the hottest articles, read the comments and connect with the commenters on their respective social media profiles. It’s one of the easiest ways to find leads. 
What if there were a worldwide group of talented ethical programmers voluntarily committed to the idea of writing and sharing software with each other and with anyone else who agreed to share alike? What if anyone could be a part of and benefit from this community even without being a computer expert or knowing anything about programming? We wouldn’t have to worry about getting caught copying a useful program for our friends—because we wouldn’t be doing anything wrong.
Would you like to design labels right on your screen without installing software? Then what you need is HERMA LabelAssistant online (EAO). Choose from more than 100 different templates. Or design your labels from scratch, with your own images, logos and graphics. Integrate Excel spreadsheets for mail merge. Or use EAO to generate barcodes and serial numbers. This is the state of the art in label design.

In the GNU project, we use copyleft to protect the four freedoms legally for everyone. We believe there are important reasons why it is better to use copyleft. However, noncopylefted free software is ethical too. See Categories of Free Software for a description of how “free software,” “copylefted software” and other categories of software relate to each other.


Skype is synonymous with video conferencing. Now run by Microsoft, there's a reason our Editors' Choice review says it's "a highly polished, hugely functional service that runs on every platform you can think of and offers more communication options than any of its competitors." (Skype did, however, kill support for apps on smart TVs.) For free, you can make unlimited video calls between Skype users, even with groups of users. Plus, the translation ability is straight out of science fiction.

Public domain software: the copyright has expired, the work was not copyrighted (released without copyright notice before 1988), or the author has released the software onto the public domain with a waiver statement (in countries where this is possible). Since public-domain software lacks copyright protection, it may be freely incorporated into any work, whether proprietary or free. The FSF recommends the CC0 public domain dedication for this purpose.[33]
Rules that “if you make your version available in this way, you must make it available in that way also” can be acceptable too, on the same condition. An example of such an acceptable rule is one saying that if you have distributed a modified version and a previous developer asks for a copy of it, you must send one. (Note that such a rule still leaves you the choice of whether to distribute your version at all.) Rules that require release of source code to the users for versions that you put into public use are also acceptable.
Evernote has one use: be your online repository for everything. Scan it, shoot it, type it, whatever, just put it in Evernote to find later. Most text, even in pictures, is OCRed (optical character recognition) so it's searchable later. Organize the notes into Notebooks, then access it anywhere. Despite some ups and downs in its business model, it remains our Editors' Choice for note-taking on multiple platforms—even if for free you can only use two devices (plus the Web interface).
Freedom 1 includes the freedom to use your changed version in place of the original. If the program is delivered in a product designed to run someone else's modified versions but refuse to run yours — a practice known as “tivoization” or “lockdown”, or (in its practitioners' perverse terminology) as “secure boot” — freedom 1 becomes an empty pretense rather than a practical reality. These binaries are not free software even if the source code they are compiled from is free.
Software that is free only in the sense that you don't need to pay to use it is hardly free at all. You may be forbidden to pass it on, and you are almost certainly prevented from improving it. Software licensed at no cost is usually a weapon in a marketing campaign to promote a related product or to drive a smaller competitor out of business. There is no guarantee that it will stay free.
A special issue arises when a license requires changing the name by which the program will be invoked from other programs. That effectively hampers you from releasing your changed version so that it can replace the original when invoked by those other programs. This sort of requirement is acceptable only if there's a suitable aliasing facility that allows you to specify the original program's name as an alias for the modified version.
Plunkett offers both print and online almanacs and other business data for a number of industries, including a special package for libraries. In addition to public companies, Plunkett Research has data on government agencies, educational institutions, and individual consumers. You can also use the online service to track industry trends and statistics.
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